Fabric is the main raw material for clothing’s. Classification of textile fabric mainly depends on structure of fabric. It is produced from yarn or fibers. There are various types of fabrics but the main classification of fabrics is done on the basis of manufacturing process. The classification of fabric is shown below.
The Classification of Textile Fabric
Woven: Woven fabrics are produced in the weaving machine. In woven fabrics two series of yarns are observed. The yarns laid in length direction of fabric are called warp yarn & the yarn laid in width direction of fabric is called weft yarn. The warp yarns are also called ends & the west yarns are also called picks. The warp & weft yarns are bound together by their interlacement called fabric structure. The most common fabric structures are plain & twill for woven fabrics.
Knitted fabrics: Knitted fabrics are produced in the Knitting machine. In knitting machine one series of yarns are used. Loops of yarns are bound together by passing one series of loop through other series of loops & form the fabric. Binding of one series of loop with another series of loop may be done on various patterns. These loop binding patterns are called knit structure. The most common knit structures are called single jersey, rib, polo-pique, interlock etc.
Felted/Bonded fabrics: This type of fabric is produced directly from the textile fibers. The fibers are laid in sheet form of regular thickness of fibers. Then the fibers are bound together by felting or bonding method. There are various techniques available for fiber bonding. Needle punching is one of the popular methods of non-woven fabric Production. Strength and dimensional stability of felted or bonded fabric is less than the woven or knitted fabric. The main area of use of non-woven fabric is interlining, floor covering wall cloth etc.
Fabric specification: Fabric specification means technical information of a fabric, which is used for large volume fabric selling, buying & fabric manufacturing. An example of a standard woven fabric specification & meanings of specification is discussed below:
20 Means Warp yarn count is 20 Ne
16 Means Weft yarn count is 16 Ne
108 Means ends/ inch is 108 Numbers.
58 Means Picks/inch is 58 Numbers.
57 Means width of fabric is 57 inch.
In case of Knitted fabrics, the fabric specification is expressed by GSM (grams per square meter) & knit structure. For example:
140 GSM Single jerseys.
220 GSM Polo-pique.
180 GSM Rib.